The Ketogenic and Modified Atkins Diets - Dr. Eric Kossoff, et al. - Dense collection of research focused mainly on epilepsy and other disorders, but contains some excellent research notes and dietary information.
Fat for Fuel - Dr. Joseph Mercola - Ketogenic and LCHF diets viewed largely from the perspective of therapeutic properties, cancer prevention, and overall health, rather than strictly weight loss.
The Big Fat Surprise - Nina Teicholz - An investigative reporter delves into what caused the low fat craze, and why it is so dangerous.
Deep Nutrition - Dr. Catherine Shanahan - The author focuses on the importance of heirloom and fermented foods, gut health, and whole animals. Of significant note is the research done on the dangers of vegetable oils.
Wired to Eat - Robb Wolf - One of the principal voices behind Paleo-type diets, Wolf provides a lot of good advice in overcoming common obstacles, and personalizing nutritional choices.
Undoctored - Dr. William Davis - The book paints a too-negative image of doctors, but makes a number of good arguments about the health industry as a whole. The author of Wheat Belly, Davis does an excellent job of getting into mineral and vitamin needs on a LCHF diet, and has a ton of good general information.
Why We Get Fat - Gary Taubes - Written by one of the pioneers of journalistic research on sugar, this is the most easily accessible of his books.
Quick and Easy Ketogenic Cooking - Maria Emmerich - In addition to having plenty of great recipes, the introduction is a great crash course on many of the big picture ways to think about nutrition. Emmerich also covers in detail the varying sweetening options that can fit within a low carbohydrate diet.
Recent Developments in LCHF and Nutritional Ketosis (Part 1) - Dr. Stephen Phinney - Epworth Hospital 2016 - Great wide ranging talk discussing ketone ranges, different dietary macros, protein intake, and other common questions. Much of the video is in a Q&A format. Dr. Phinney stresses the importance of realizing that every individual is different, and how "more isn't better."
LDL on LCHF - Dr. Sarah Hallberg - Low Carb Vail Conference 2016 - Excellent primer on the effects of a low carbohydrate diet on LDL cholesterol, and which markers are actually important. Parts of the discussion get a little dense, but the overview is easy to follow.
Efficacy of the Autoimmune Protocol Diet for Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: November 2017 - Volume 23 - Issue 11 - p 2054–2060 - One of the first studies to use an ancestral/paleo-type diet on an autoimmune disease. By the end of six weeks, the vast majority of chronic IBD sufferers (average length of disease was 19 years!) were in remission.